Social Psychology Network

Maintained by Scott Plous, Wesleyan University

Phebe Cramer

Phebe Cramer

Research interests: Defense mechanisms, coping, stress, identity, narcissism, and gender differences

Primary Interests:

  • Emotion, Mood, Affect
  • Gender Psychology
  • Personality, Individual Differences
  • Self and Identity
  • Sexuality, Sexual Orientation


Journal Articles:

  • Cramer, P. (2008). Identification and the development of competence: A 44-year longitudinal study from Late adolescence to late midle age. Psychology and Aging, 23, 410-421.
  • Cramer, P. (2008). Seven pillars of defense mechanism theory. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2, 1963-1981.
  • Cramer, P. (2004). Identity change in adulthood: The contribution of defense mechanisms and life experience. Journal of Research in Personality, 38, 280-316.
  • Cramer, P. (2003). Defense mechanisms and physiological reactivity to stress. Journal of Personality, 71, 221-244.
  • Cramer, P. (2000). Defense mechanisms in Psychology today: Further processes for adaptation. American Psychologist, 55, 637-646.
  • Cramer, P. (1999). Ego functions and ego development: Defense mechanisms and intelligence as predictors of ego level. Journal of Personality, 67, 735-760.
  • Cramer, P. (1998). Coping and defense mechanisms: What's the difference? Journal of Personality, 66, 919-946.
  • Cramer, P. (1998). Freshman to senior year: A follow-up study of identity, narcissism and defense mechanisms. Journal of Research in Personality, 32, 156-172.
  • Cramer, P. (1998). Threat to gender representation: Identity and identification. Journal of Personality, 66, 335-357.
  • Cramer, P., & Block, J. (1998). Preschool antecedents of defense mechanism use in young adults. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 159-169.
  • Cramer, P., & Jones, C. J. (2008). Narcissism, identification and longitudinal change in psychological health. Journal of Research in Personality, 41, 841-855.
  • Cramer, P., & Tracy, A. (2005). The pathway from child personality to adult adjustment: The road is not straight. Journal of Research in Personality, 39, 369-394.

Other Publications:

  • Cramer, P. (2002). The study of defense mechanisms: Gender implications. In R. F. Bornstein & J. M. Masling (Eds.), The Psychodynamics of Gender and Gender Role (pp. 81-127). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Courses Taught:

  • Childhood Disorders and Therapy
  • Children's Lives: Thinking, Feeling and Doing
  • Developmental Psychology
  • Introductory Psychology

Phebe Cramer
Department of Psychology
Williams College
18 Hoxsey Street, Bronfman Science Center
Williamstown, Massachusetts 01267
United States

  • Phone: (413) 597-2463
  • Fax: (413) 597-2085

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